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Chandlers to Virginia 1610-1700
2003 by Joseph Barron Chandler, Jr., BA, JD
Reproduced with permission and adapted for the CFA website at the copyright owner's suggestion. This article was first published in Tidewater Virginia Families: A Magazine of History and Genealogy in several parts in 2003/4: Part 1 in Volume 12 #2, Part 2 in Volume 12 #3, and Part 3 in Volume 12 #4
About Headrights Potential Seventeenth Century
Virginia Chandler Ancestors
AnalysisConclusionsNotes

Thousands of descendants of the 1610 Virginia immigrant John Chandler have lived and died in the United States, and many are now living in this country. The best way to identify oneself with a seventeenth-century Chandler of Virginia is to prove descent from one of the two sons of the 1610 John. No descendants have been proven from William, Francis and Mary, or two of the five children of John's younger son, Robert. His older brother, John II, probably has living descendants in female lines.

This 1624 map of Virginia by John Smith can be viewed in a larger format on the Library of Congress website at http://www.loc.gov/item/99446115

Meantime, this article highlights seventeenth century Virginia Chandler immigrants other than the 1610 John from whom descent may have occurred. Twenty-nine Chandlers (male/female) are patentees or headrights in the land patent abstracts compiled by Nell Marion Nugent (through1700). A few more have been found in other sources.

In the February 1999 Chandler Family Association Newsletter (CFA), Harold Nelson Chandler (hereafter, Nelson) purported to identify sixty-six seventeenth century Chandlers who immigrated to America 1607-1699. Nelson is a CFA founder, researcher and writer. Despite some flaws that detract from the credibility of his article, he brings together in one place most of the identifiable seventeenth century Virginia importees, many of whom became immigrants. This is a very valuable tool for Virginia Chandler researchers.

Not everyone who came to Virginia was an "immigrant," i.e., a person who comes to a country to take up permanent residence. Nelson lists forty-two; however, some did not settle and others may be duplicates or combined. A misunderstanding or overstatement of what the listing of headrights prove has also created an overestimate of the number of immigrants; as has a failure to appreciate the extent of repeat crossings of the Atlantic. Finally, a lot of younger sons of the aristocracy and gentry (shut out from inheriting land at home) came to America with some money, prospered and returned to England - for example, Henry Meese, who came to America and acquired land here but eventually died in England.

About Headrights
The listing of a headright standing alone proves just one thing: A person bearing the headright name was, to county court satisfaction, transported into Virginia.
But, as early as 1640 to induce settlers into York County, headrights were awarded to existing residents for moving into newly opened areas. Headrights seldom prove whether the patentee who redeemed the headright was the one who sponsored the headright, if the headright was indentured or free, if the headright remained in Virginia, or when he/she arrived.

Many headrights are duplicates. A patentee could exchange patent A for patent B, re-using the headrights. A patentee could forfeit a patent and sell the headrights to someone who re-patented that or another tract. Patentees often re-patented when adding land or to confirm land in the name of one who inherited it by intestacy. There were also fraudulent reuses of headrights.

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Some Potential Seventeenth Century Virginia Chandler Ancestors
Of Nelson's forty-two Virginians, ten were women. Of the men, ten are named John, five named William, three named Richard, two each named Arthur, Benjamin, Francis and Thomas, and one each named Alexander, Bartholomew, Daniel, George, Job and Nicholas. Some were just visitors - businessmen, family visitors or brief sojourners who returned to England or elsewhere. Samuel Chandler, not found by Nelson, stayed for years but returned to London.
Nelson's list, corrected, supplemented and analyzed by the present author, is the framework of the present report:

The chart below contains Chandlers listed in headrights and other documents 1607-1700. Some, but far from all, became immigrants (i.e., they established permanent residence).

[Editor's note: The identifying dates in the chart below and elsewhere on this page indicate the date the immigrant is believed to have arrived in America.]

Key:
* Virginia descendants proven.
^ Virginia descendants possible.
+ Died without descendants or line known to have died out.
Others - information inadequate to form an opinion about descendants.
% Names added by the present author to Nelson's February 1999 list.


1. *John 1610
2. Richard 1621/2
3. ^Arthur 1623
4. +Thomas 1623/1628
5. ^George 1635
6. ^William 1638 (2)
%7. ^Samuel 1637
%7a. ^Elias 1638/9
8. Susan 1642
9. ^John 1646
10. *Job 1648
%10a. John 1648/9
11. Ann 1649
12. Arthur 1650
13. Daniel 1650
14. -Sarah 1650
15. Nicholas 1651
16. Richard 1651
17. Francis 1654
%18. William 1653/4
%19. John 1655
20. Benjamin 1657
21. +Mary 1658
22. +Bartholomew 1662
%23. Elias 1662
%24. Thomas 1663
25. ^Francis 1665 (1659)
26. Richard 1667
27. ^Mary 1667
28. John 1667
%29, 30. William 1671 & Bridget 1671
31. [See note.]
32/33. Ann 1674&5
34. Ann 1675/6
35. John 1678
36. John 1679 #1
37. John 1679 #2
38. Thomas 1683
39. +Benjamin 1683
%40 & %40a. John & Margaret 1669
41. John 1685
42. William 1685
43. Alexander 1688
%44. John 1688/9
45. ^John 1690
46 & 47. William, ^Susannah 1691
48. John 1695

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Analysis
1. *John 1610 - debarked from the Hercules at Jamestown on Sunday morning. June 10, 1610. For details about him and many descendants, see the author's six articles in Tidewater Virginia Families, 2000-2003 or information presented on this website that is based on those articles. --Back to chart
2.Richard 1621/2 - arrived February 1621/2 in a party sent by Edward Bennett, London merchant, chartered by the Virginia Company to establish a particular plantation at Wariscoyack, now in Isle of Wight County. Richard was killed in the March 22, 1621/2 native uprising. He was probably the eighteen year old son of George Chandler, a company member. There is absolutely no evidence Richard acquired land, or married and had children. --Back to chart
3.^Arthur 1623/1650 - arrived 1623 aboard the Jonathan, was counted at Jamestown on February 16, 1623/4, and age nineteen in the Muster with the Governor's servants at Pasbehaighs, north of Jamestown, January 23, 1624/5. It is believed he was the one christened August 11, 1605 at St. Bride Fleet Street, London. He was brought in by the Marshall to be kept for Virginia at Bridewell (Hospital) in January 1619/20. It is likely the 1650 and 1656 Arthur headrights are the same and that they represent his original passage, a subsequent trip or both. Descendants are unlikely. The patents are to different patentees in different counties (1650 Stephen Hamlin in Charles City; 1656 Henry Chichley, Knight in Lancaster), but twenty of the twenty-five headrights are the same. These were prominent people - Chichley would later be Governor - so it seems Hamlin at some point sold twenty of these headrights to Chichley. The effect on Hamlin's title to his patent is unknown, but there is no apparent reason to suspect fraud; however, it does illustrate one of the several activities that can result in headright repetition. --Back to chart
4.+Thomas 1623/1628 - arrived in 1623 aboard the Great Hopewell. He entered again in 1628 on the Hopewell among 105 headrights (redeemed by shipmate Adam Thorowgood in 1635) including Augustine Warner, ancestor of George Washington. As the administrator of the estate of Thomas, Warner appropriated the four headrights belonging to Chandler. Widow Ann and Warner sued each other, but seem to have settled. It is unlikely there were descendants. --Back to chart
5.^George 1635 - age twenty-nine, he departed London June 23,1635 aboard the America. Christened twice in London on July 27,1606, he was a member of the Drapers Company (textiles), visiting his interests in Virginia, which likely included a visit with John Chandler (of 1610), to whom he may have been related. His father, George was a member of the Virginia Company, 1609-1624. He was back in England by 1636. He may have had descendants who emigrated to Virginia. --Back to chart
6.^William 1638(2) - arrived in Virginia aboard the William before September 7, 1638. On this date a patent for 400 acres in James City County dated September 7, 1638 was issued to Thomas Plomer and Samuell Edmonds, including William as a headright and servant of Edmonds. By researching the patentees themselves it surfaced that Plomer sold his share of the joint patent to Jeremiah Dickson, who sold to Captain John Flower on March 1 or 5, 1640. Dickson re-patented this land on September 30, 1645 reciting that it was in Charles City County and joined Edmonds' 200-acre share of the 1638 patent.

Meantime, Samuel Edmonds had obviously sold his 200 acre share to Thomas Matthews, whose October 10, 1641 re-patent (county omitted) of that share again used the William Chandler headright, saying he arrived aboard the William in 1638. Even though the land is said to have been in two different counties, the description shows it was the same land. The dividing line between the counties was apparently uncertain. Also, at the time both counties included land on both sides of the James River. This indicates there were not two Williams who arrived in 1638 as Nelson thought. Collateral research should not be overlooked in conducting research. Edmonds does not appear thereafter in the patent books, so he probably returned to England taking servant William Chandler. Descendants are possible but not likely. --Back to chart

7.^Samuel 1637 first appears September 25, 1637 in Accomack Court where he was due 200 pounds of tobacco. He seems to have been resident there when he was deposed on November 26, 1638 in what is now Northampton County. Even though he made at least three round trips to Virginia (probably more), he was never a headright. Maybe his passages were redeemed when Lord Baltimore granted his brother Richard 1000 acres in Kent County, Maryland on February 16, 1659/60.

In England in 1641, he was sent by his brother, Richard (attorney-in-fact for the executors of the estate of Lady Elizabeth Dale) to prosecute the land claim of her late husband, Sir Thomas Dale, before the Virginia Council, which Samuel successfully did on March 24, 1641/2. His departure from the William Burdett homestead for a trip to England is vividly described in John Allen's January 3, 1642/3 deposition. He appears in many Maryland and Virginia records, the latest found so far being December 29, 1646. Christened at Holy Trinity, Stratford-upon-Avon, Warwickshire January 3, 1618/9, his only known child - Edward - was a legatee in the 1691 will of his uncle Richard of London. Edward (christening date not found) is described as "now of London" in the 1693 will of uncle Richard's widow Winnifred. Samuel became a freeman of the London Grocers Company in 1643. It has not been determined where he resided after December 1646. --Back to chart

7a.^Elias 1638/9 was in Accomack Court January 24, 1638/9 where he and Thomas Powell were sued by Thomas Harte for 800 pounds of tobacco due Captain John Howe, from whose administrator Harte bought the debt. Elias may have been Ellys Chandler christened January 17, 1601/2 at St Andrews, Canterbury, Kent, in turn possible son of Ellis Chaundeloure christened December 19, 1562 in Cranbrook, Kent. (See Elias 1662.) --Back to chart
8.Susan 1642 - headright in a May 23, 1642 patent in Lower Norfolk County to Peter Johnson, who stated the headright had been assigned to him by Peter Wrye. Perhaps she was the wife or daughter of John of 1610, returning from a visit to England; or Johnson's future wife. --Back to chart
9.^John 1646, a date chosen by Nelson. This John appears first as taking tithes, June 15 and listing taxes, August 17, 1647 in Lower Norfolk County. He perfected a certificate for 150 acres in Norfolk County Court October 25, 1652 for transporting himself; Edmond Magonne and Thomas Roth. He sold the certificate to Richard King who redeemed it for 150 acres March 9, 1652/3. But the Chandler name disappears from Norfolk records for more than a century after he is recorded as giving a cow to Anne Wilder (a child) on May 15, 1655.

This author is convinced John 1646 and John 1610 were the same person, in part because it was common for a person to own land and hold civil and ecclesiastical offices other than in his county of residence. The present author also discovered 1610 John bought ninety acres in Norfolk from Richard Worster some time after May 22, 1637. Nelson says John 1646 went to Northumberland County, patenting 1500- and 350-acre tracts January 28, 1656/7. The present author extensively researched Northumberland records, concluding the Northumberland John was a son of John 1610. This John, his wife and "orphans" were not headrights, strong evidence they were natives. Son/heir Daniel re-patented the 1850 acres in 1668, but as a resident of Elizabeth City (he died there 1692) began selling off parts in 1673. --Back to chart

10.*Job 1648. Nelson reports Job as a Virginia immigrant March 7, 1648/9 when he patented 240 acres joining Francis Yardley (son of Governor George Yardley) who wed Job's mother-in-law in 1647. But, Job was in Virginia by May 2, 1642 and was apparently residing in Accomack on August 17, 1647 when Susanna Smoote of London appointed him attorney-in-fact to recover debts due her late husband David, London merchant.

Christened at Holy Trinity, Stratford-upon-Avon, Warwickshire, May 18, 1623, Job was a son of William (1577-1638+) Chandler, churchwarden and Chief of Guilds in Stratford 1620-21. His brothers were William (1603), Richard (1608), Samuel (1618) and John (1628). William's fate is unknown. Richard went to London where he was apprentice (1628) and freeman (1645) of the Haberdashers Company, sponsored by Thomas Stone. Among Richard's close business associates were Cecil Calvert, 2nd Lord Baltimore, and Stone, whose nephew William was appointed Governor of Maryland by Calvert in 1648.

In 1649 Job was in Lower Norfolk, having married Anne Thorowgood, daughter of Adam and Sarah (Offley) Thorowgood, and was Burgess 1649 and Sheriff 1650. He moved to Maryland in 1651, when appointed Receiver-General by Calvert. He died March 1659/60 and was buried at his home, Chandler's Hope, in Charles County. His only descendants are through a daughter, Anne. --Back to chart

10a.John 1648/9. The headright of "John Chanelor" in a 150-acre York patent to James Miller on January 26, 1648/9, probably resulted from a return trip to Virginia by 1610 John or by a John who did not remain in Virginia. Nelson incorporated him into his John 1646, from which the present author dissents. (See John 1655 below.) --Back to chart
11.Ann 1649 - appears as a headright in a patent to Thomas Spake for 600 acres in Northumberland County, January 10,1649/50. This sole source does not prove she was an immigrant. She could have been the wife of Thomas of 1628, or the wife or daughter of a Chandler already residing in Virginia returning from England, or she could have been coming to Virginia to marry. Perhaps she was just moving from county to county pursuant to an inducement authorized by the Colonial Assembly. --Back to chart
12.Arthur 1650 - See Arthur of 1623. --Back to chart
13.Daniel 1650 - headright of Theophilis Hoane, he and his sister arrived in Virginia sometime after May 8, 1650 when their father, Edward, made his will in Ware, Hertfordshire, England and February 22, 1652/3 when Hoane's patent was issued. He may have returned to England after his sister married. Daniel was christened November 6, 1636 at Bishops Stortford, Hertfordshire. --Back to chart
14.-Sarah 1650 - sister of Daniel above, they came to Virginia together. She was christened October 25, 1635 at Bishops Stortford, Hertfordshire. It seems very likely she is the one who became the third wife of Thomas Swann in Henrico County on July 30, 1655. She bore him four children, none of whom survived. --Back to chart
15.Nicholas 1651 - headright in an October 19, 1653 patent to Evan Davis and Henry Nicholls for land in Lancaster County. John of 1610 was probably the one christened September 7, 1600 at St. Margaret's Westminster, London. He had an older brother named Nicholas, christened there February, 1597/8. Since no other Virginia record has been found of Nicholas, perhaps he was visiting his brother. Or, perhaps he was the resident of Barbados in the 1650s and/or the London merchant who shipped goods to Virginia in 1672. Included were some haberdashery items and it is known that John of 1610 had a judgment in York County against a man for payment due for some gloves. Many Chandlers were active in various textile and haberdashery trades in England. It does not seem likely he settled in Virginia or left descendants there. --Back to chart
16.Richard 1651 - headright, September 16,1656 patent to Abraham Moone and Thomas Griffin for land on the Rappahannock River in Lancaster County, a re-patent of a patent to Dennis Conniers and Evan Davis dated February 12, 1651 (missing). Nelson stated he found nothing more about Richard in Lancaster County. So, he could easily have been Richard, brother of Job 1648 (see #10 above), head of the family's London mercantile enterprises, making a trip to Virginia and Maryland to survey the business there and to visit his brother. In 1651 Job moved from Lower Norfolk County, Virginia to Portobacco in Charles County, Maryland, where Lord Calvert appointed him Receiver General of the colony. --Back to chart
17.Francis 1654 was found by Nelson in a Bristol port abstract: "Francis Chandler of Bishops Stortford, bound for Virginia." There is no Virginia entry record, so his emigration is doubtful. (See Francis 1665 below). --Back to chart
18.William 1653/4 (not found by Nelson), servant of John Brook, was judged to be 18 years old on March 6, 1671/2. Further research is warranted. --Back to chart
19.John 1655. The 1655 will of George Chandler of St. Margaret's Westminster, London bequeathed 10 shillings to "my brother John in Virginia" and valuable properties to John's children in London (no Daniel). So, this John could not be the John 1646 of Nelson, or Northumberland John. There is no evidence he left any Virginia descendants; a return to London after 1655 seems likely. Back to John 1648 --Back to chart
20.Benjamin 1657, Northumberland headright of Samuel Matthews November 23, 1657, may have been christened August 11, 1637 at St. Gregory by St. Paul, London. He probably returned to England. --Back to chart
21.+Mary 1658 was listed as a headright of Nathaniel Bradford on October 10, 1658 in Northampton County. Perhaps Mary was the wife of John Chandler II, (son/heir of 1610 John) returning from England after her husband's death, or perhaps the wife of Bartholomew 1662. The former had children, the latter had no children. --Back to chart
22.+Bartholomew 1662 patented 1238 Henrico acres on November 27, 1671, adjoining Henry Randolph II, including the 400 acres Randolph sold him in 1662. Among his headrights were William and Bridget Chandler and Phillip Jones, the latter Bartholomew's nephew. William Bird redeemed his headright October 27, 1673. He appears in several other Henrico records.

Using Nugent's abstract of Phillip Jones' re-patent of the 1238 acres dated April 29, 1692, Nelson concluded the death dates of Bartholomew, his wife and family, if any were recorded, are unknown, but the full patent shows Bartholomew and wife were the uncle and aunt of Jones and his land escheated for lack of heirs. It was re-patented by Jones with consent of his aunt, wife of John Piggott by August 1, 1687. On March 1, 1684/5 Piggott sold 374 acres he patented April 1, 1684 and his wife Mary signed with him. So, Mary Jones was the wife of Bartholomew. Many immigrants are not found in the I.G.I., but a Bartholomew of the right age is - son of William and Magdalena Chandler, christened at Bath Abbey, Somerset June 17, 1630. Siblings were Richard (1620-35), Mary (1622), Joane (1625), William (1628), and Elizabeth (1635). Surely it was his brother, William and (?wife) Bridget who were the headrights of Bartholomew. William must have died before Bartholomew or returned to England since no heir is found to have claimed his land. --Back to chart

23.Elias 1662 was twenty-two when he deposed in Maryland in 1662 and was surely the son of Elias and Rebecca (Field) Chandler, christened October 18, 1640 at St. Dunstan Stepney, London, where they married July 20, 1629. His father was likely the Elias 1638/9 above. No doubt, both were London merchants who visited Virginia and Maryland. Elias 1662 was probably the one who, with wife Ellen, had christened a third generation Elias at St. Dunstan's on November 7, 1667. Back to Elias 1638/9 --Back to chart
24.Thomas 1663 was listed as a headright of Anne Toft in an Accomack Court certificate awarded April 1, 1663. His subsequent fate is unknown. --Back to chart
25.^Francis 1665 (1659). Francis Chandler of Bishops Stortford, bound to serve Theophilus Hoane in Virginia for seven years, shown on a July 23, 1659 Bristol list, is almost identical to Francis 1654. Among others, Hoane imported Daniel and Sarah Chandler (christened at Bishops Stortford), children of Edward Chandler of Ware, Hertfordshire c. 1650.

Headrights for Francis Chandler, Teague Okey, Francis Oatley, Rice and Ann Jones were redeemed in a patent to William Wilkins of Charles City March 13, 1665. Not perfecting his claim, he assigned to Thomas Maples and William Hickman of James City who redeemed these headrights again on September 16, 1668. Hoane imported Richard and Francis Oatly in 1659. This shows one way names were legally redeemed more than once. One must check multiple sources and cross check companions of the headright one is investigating. More research concerning Francis Chandler is warranted. --Back to chart

26, 27.Richard 1667 and ^Mary 1667 were headrights of Colonel Edmond Scarburgh in a 3000-acre patent in Accomack County on October 9, 1667. Further investigation is needed to identify them. --Back to chart
28.John 1667 was a headright of Major William Ball and Thomas Chetwood, partners in a patent for 1600 acres in Rappahannock County, April 17, 1667. At this time, John Chandler III was living on the Lupo-Chandler land on the Elizabeth City waterfront with his older brother Daniel and other siblings. Because no other record of headright has been found, it seems likely this is another headright for a return trip to Virginia by a descendant of 1610 John. --Back to chart
29, 30.William and Bridget 1671, probably husband and wife, were 1671 headrights of Bartholomew 1662. William, surely the brother of Bartholomew, almost certainly predeceased Bartholomew. --Back to chart
31[Editor's note: Some accident of misnumbering has resulted in #31 being omitted from the originally published article. If this was more than a simple numbering error and an individual's entry was omitted, we will include it here if the information can be retrieved.] --Back to chart
32/33.Ann Chandler 1674 and 1675, listed as two different people by Nelson. Ann of 1674 appears only in Halbert's, so it is likely that she is the same as Ann of 1675 who was a headright in a patent to Thomas Cock for 1982 acres in Charles City County on October 4,1675. She could have been Ann, wife of John Chandler III or Ann, daughter of Daniel (older brother of John III), both of Elizabeth City County, among other possibilities. --Back to chart
34.Ann Chandler 1675/6, headright in a patent to David Crafford dated February 24, 1675/6, New Kent County, whose identity and fate are likely as 32/33 above. --Back to chart
35.John Chandler 1678 was a headright in a 1000-acre patent to Timothy Carter in New Kent County dated June 1, 1678. He and Ann 1675/6 may have been John Chandler III and wife Ann returning from a visit to England or another colony. This is speculation, but in the absence of more evidence it is just as possible as, or better, than postulating he was a new immigrant. --Back to chart
36.John Chandler 1679 (#1) was a headright of Richard Johnson in a patent dated May 13, 1679 in New Kent County. Perhaps the same as John #35 above. Among the possibilities, patentee Timothy Carter could have failed to perfect some or all of his 1000-acre patent claim, or reduced it, or sold a headright to Johnson. This is speculation, of course, but it illustrates the variety of possibilities available to explain headrights - especially those of the same name close in time to each other. This belies the easy (or uninformed) answer so often employed in the past, that is, they were all new immigrants. --Back to chart
37.John Chandler 1679 (#2). Nelson cites Halbert's for his migration into Middlesex County, at the age of twelve; inadequate to prove any identity. He may have been the John of numbers 35 or 36. --Back to chart
38.Thomas Chandler 1683 was certified as a transportee of William Harcum in Northumberland County on January 17, 1682/3. There is no other record of him there, but he surely was the Thomas who settled in Westmoreland County. His presumed brother, William Chandler 1685 (below), was certified as a transportee of Leonard Howson the same day in consecutive entries. Many records of him and his children exist in Westmoreland County, where he died in 1726 naming children Francis, Joseph and John Chandler, and grandson Thomas Sparling. Nelson states that Thomas died 1726, but strangely failed to say why he so concluded or identify him as the Thomas Chandler of Westmoreland County, while doing so for William Chandler 1685. --Back to chart
39.+Benjamin Chandler 1683, Isle of Wight County headright of Henry Applewhite on November 20, 1683, was probably the London merchant who married Elizabeth Catchmaid as her second husband; she was the grand-niece and sole heir of Edward Catchmaid, eldest son/heir of Thomas who was a brother and devisee of George Catchmaid of Treslick [probably Treliske in the county of Cornwall], England. George Catchmaid died in Nansemond County, and had been identified as the clerk of the court there; leaving a will that has been apparently lost.

George Catchmaid was a Nansemond County Burgess 1659-60 and Speaker of the North Carolina Colonial Assembly 1666 (perhaps its first). He received an April 1, 1663 Virginia patent for 3333 acres at the tip of the peninsula (now Stevenson Point) between Little and Perquimans rivers in what is now Perquimans County, North Carolina. He named his plantation Birkswear; however, it partially overlapped land George Durant acquired by deed (the oldest known deed of North Carolina land). This deed dated March 1, 1661 was from an Indian Chief and was involved in a later settlement by line agreement. Catchmaid was also granted 1500 acres by Virginia Governor William Berkeley on September 25, 1666, that was recorded in the North Carolina Patent Book 1, page 144. Timothy Biggs married George's widow, then sued for the 3333 acres based upon an alleged nuncupative will. Benjamin Chandler had died by 1733 when his widow, Elizabeth Chandler and Biggs settled their case, apparently releasing Birkswear to Biggs while Elizabeth retained 850 acres of the land, plus the 1500-acre patent. It has not been learned whether Benjamin Chandler had children who came to America. --Back to chart

40 and 40a.John and Margaret Chandler of 1669 were husband and wife. He was fined 553 pounds of tobacco in Accomack County in 1669 and he and his wife, Margaret appeared together when they were paid for being witnesses for Captain Alexander Notes on August 6, 1670. They appear separately and together in many Accomack County records for about thirty years; but never as headrights. John Chandler was forty years old when he deposed on March 1688/9, that he was born about 1648/9. His will, made January 23, 1728/9, named children Hathan Fettaplace (one person), Solomon, Bridget, Abigail and Charity. John, Jr., who predeceased John, Sr. by a few months, and Rebecca Chandler, wife of John Woodward, appear to be other children of this John. Author Annamae Chandler is working on a genealogy of this Chandler family. However, her draft wrongly concludes that John and Margaret were not immigrants solely because their names have not been found as headrights. In fact, John 1667, 1678 and 1679 could have been this John, while Margaret could have arrived unmarried. --Back to chart
41.John Chandler 1685 was a headright in an Henrico County patent to Henry Randolph II on April 1691 in which it was recited that Randolph imported John Chandler October 20, 1685. This land and the 374 acres patented April 21, 1684 by John Piggott (who married the widow of Bartholomew Chandler of 1662) joined Bartholomew's 1238 acres of land.

The Bartholomew Chandler who was christened in 1630 at Bath, Somerset, England did not have a brother named John, so presumably he was a cousin, if he wasn't simply another Virginia John returning from a trip to England. Since the nephew, John Piggott succeeded to Bartholomew's land by escheat and re-patent, this John must have died, if he was the one who could be identified as related to Bartholomew. --Back to chart

42.William Chandler 1685 was certified as a transportee of Leonard Howson in Northumberland County on January 17, 1682/3, the same day as the Thomas Chandler of 1683 (above). Nelson estimated William's arrival date as both 1683 and 1685. The first record he cites is a 1694 Westmoreland County court order. Surely, he and Thomas 1683 were brothers. Thomas witnessed the 1692 John Awbrey will, whose widow Jane Awbrey married William Chandler. William appears in many Westmoreland County documents including his nuncupative will proved by Thomas Lee on July 21, 1729. He gave his wife at that time, what the law provided; his former wife's sister, Elizabeth Cooper, a slave; and friend, Henry Lee, a horse. He gave the remainder of his estate to Chandler Awbrey, his godson and grandson-in-law, whom he had reared with Jane. The will was made in secret and left with his friend Thomas Lee because William was afraid Deliverance, his wife at the time (widow of Joseph Taylor), who subsequently married Owen Brinnon, would dispose of the will. William Chandler had lived a controversial life. --Back to chart
43.Alexander Chandler 1688 is listed as a headright in a patent to Edmond Lokis (?Lucas) for 640 acres on Currituck Sound in Lower Norfolk County on April 23, 1688. The land was in what is now Currituck County, North Carolina. But neither Lokis, Lucas and other variants of the name, or Alexander Chandler appear in any North Carolina land grant records. Neither does Alexander seem to appear in other Virginia records. Perhaps he was actually the Alexander Strange (see John Chandler 1690 below) listed with his stepfather's surname in the transportation receipt. --Back to chart
44.John Chandler 1688/9 seems to appear only as a headright in a patent to Thomas Branton on April 20, 1689 for thirty-three acres in Warwick County adjoining Captain Miles Cary and Thomas Harwood, although a notation says this patent is to be charged to York County. The two counties joined and Celey's, the Elizabeth City County plantation of Miles Cary, joined the west side of the Albiano Lupo-John Chandler land on the Elizabeth City County-Hampton Roads waterfront. This was land owned by John Chandler III by 1689. Clearly, it must be presumed that this headright was merely for Chandler returning from a trip abroad and not a fresh immigrant, probably a headright for return passage for a trip to England by John III. --Back to chart
45.^John Chandler 1690. He may be identified, as related by Nelson, in a book entitled The Strange Family, All About Us by D. Freeman (which the present writer has not been able to find). It is stated that this John Chandler arrived in Virginia from Bideford, England, c.1690, with his wife Phebe (widow of -?- Strange) and her son, Alexander. No headrights for them have been found.

This John Chandler also appears in a few Elizabeth City County records, resulting in confusion with John Chandler III and IV. Some have thought this John and Phebe were part of the family of 1610 immigrant John; however, this is not so. Chandler Family Association researchers did outstanding work in separating the two. Their conclusion is reinforced by the August 20, 1699 summons to Charles and Phebe Tucker to appear for the dower allotment proceeding for Ann Thedam, widow of John Chandler III concerning the 350-acre Lupo-Chandler tract of land. --Back to chart

46 & 47.William and ^Susannah Chandler 1691 were headrights in a patent to Nicholas Sessoms for 260 acres in Surry County on April 28, 1691. Were they husband and wife? By 1691 William Chandler, son of Robert Chandler and grandson of 1610 immigrant John, would have been thirty-five to forty years old; his wife's name is unknown. But, Susannah was also the name of the wife of Daniel Chandler, brother of John Chandler III and this William Chandler could be an as yet unidentified kinsman, without assuming they are new immigrants. Clearly, more research is needed to resolve this dilemma. --Back to chart
48.John Chandler 1695 was a headright in a patent to Captain John Styth (sic) for 595 acres of land in James City County dated October 23, 1695. This is a composite patent, the history of which began with a patent issued September 6, 1665 and part of the land had been patented and forfeited twice before the 1695 Styth patent! However, John 1695 appears to have been among the headrights recently acquired by Styth and used for the new land that he added to the earlier patent/patents. In 1695 there were at least two men named John Chandler residing in Elizabeth City County - John IV (great-grandson of John 1610) and John 1690 (above), the husband of widow Phebe (--?-) Strange. This headright could have been named for a trip by either of them or for a new immigrant. Not enough evidence has been found to make a definitive identification. --Back to chart

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Conclusions
This exercise demonstrates that many seventeenth-century Virginia head-rights do not represent new immigrants. It also illustrates that the date of arrival versus the dates of lands patented, and the county in which headright land was located versus the actual area in which the headrights themselves settled cannot be determined without independent, corroborating evidence. Neither is the absence of the identification of a headright designation, standing alone, proof that any particular person was born in Virginia.

Only ten of the fifty or so Chandlers identified as headrights and other sources are known to have settled for life or remained for some years in Virginia: John 1610, Arthur 1623/1650, Thomas 1620/1628, Samuel 1637, Job 1648, Bartholomew 1662, Thomas 1683, John and Margaret 1669, William 1685 and John 1690. Of these, only John 1610, Job 1648, Thomas 1683 and John and Margaret 1669 are known to have left children and other lineal descendants.

It should be noted that three Chandler men who remained in Virginia are known to have left no descendants, they are: Thomas 1620/1628, Bartholomew 1662 and William 1685. George 1635 is known to have only been visiting, probably business and pleasure, and returned to England almost immediately, where he died c. 1669.

Evidence also suggests that several others returned to England (or went to other colonies abroad) leaving no descendants in America: Samuel 1637, Elias 1638/9, Daniel 1650, Nicholas 1651, Richard 1651, Richard 1667 and Elias 1662.

Several, in fact many of the headrights as named, were almost certainly for return passage to Virginia by natives or previous immigrants who had made trips to England for business, pleasure or education. This was quite common for seventeenth-century Virginians in the merchant and higher socio-economic classes.

It is hoped this exercise will encourage persons who have not yet found their immigrant Chandler ancestor to continue to search, and add to the history of the Chandler family in Virginia. The author also hopes that this exercise will help other researchers separate documented facts from conjecture.

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Notes

1 At the time of writing, the author was Federal Legislative Counsel in the Washington, DC office of the Governor of North Carolina. He graduated from St. Andrews Presbyterian College with a degree in history and from the School of Law of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Additions, corrections and suggestions for improvement based upon sound evidence are always appreciated at #926, Alexandria, VA 22314 or by e-mail (joechandler@yahoo.com).

2 See Joseph Barron Chandler, Jr., six articles- Parts I-VI in Tidewater Virginia Families (TVF), August/September 2000 through February/March 2003; Chandler Family Association Newsletter 1991-present; Irene Chandler Miller, Our Joseph Chandler of Caswell County, Volumes I-IV (1988,1992,1997,2000) published by the author, 9712 Mirage Circle, Garden Grove, CA, and Miller, The Other Joseph Chandler of Georgia, 1750-1822. 1987.

3 Chandler TVF II. 10 (2001):8-18; III. 11 (2002):3-11; IV. 11(2002):79-88;VI (illegible)

4 Chandler TVF V. 11 (2002):146-154.

5 Nell Marion Nugent, Cavaliers and Pioneers, Volume I. (1934) (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., rep. 1974); Volumes II and III (Richmond: Virginia State Library 1977, 1979)

6 The Chandler Family Association was formally established January 1, 1991. It publishes the CFA Newsletter three times a year. CFA is in the process of placing a complete set of its Newsletter in selected genealogical/archival state libraries, including Virginia, the Carolinas, Georgia and Texas.

7 Harold Nelson Chandler, "Chandlers Who Immigrated to America 1607-1699" in Chandler Family Association Newsletter. (Lakeland, FL: CFA) XI 1 (1999):1-37

8 Nelson's article actually covered only three colonies - Virginia, Maryland and Massachusetts - and New England generically. He failed to differentiate among the quality of his sources. For instance, he used a Halbert's publication for at least 31 of his 66 immigrants, giving it equal weight with the professional works of Nugent, Coldham and Hotten (see note 19). He did not use Adventurers of Purse and Person 1607-1624/5 (see also note 19), or its prior iterations - an essential research tool. He also drew unsupported conclusions that may mislead researchers. Among these are the assumptions that most of the subjects were "born in England," that there is "no further information" about them, that each was new to America, that they were imported into the counties where the land lay for which they were used as headrights and that they were all "immigrants." Among the omitted Chandlers are George and Jane of New Castle County, DE, the 1686 immigrant ancestors of what may be the largest Chandler family in the United States.

9 Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, Tenth Edition. (Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster, Incorporated 1993) 580.

10 Henry Meese came to Virginia c. 1650, acquired land, became a Colonel of the militia and a Burgess. He was back in London by 1669 where he died between writing his will January 12, 1681/2 will and the probation dated April 5, 1682. In it he disposed of his estate in England and Virginia. Peter Wilson Coldham, American Wills Proved in London. (Baltimore- Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 1992) 33.

11 Nugent I, xxiii-xxvi. As a prerequisite for applying for a patent based upon headrights, one was required to obtain a certificate from the county court that the headright had been proved in open court. See the reference to Thomas Chandler's certificate, Nugent I,264.

12Headright receipts (signed by a ship captain or other importer) and court certificates were negotiable instruments. Those who paid for the importation of a headright included investors on both sides of the Atlantic as pre-transport sponsors. Others purchased from captains who had borne the expense of filling out their ships' capacities, importers and the occasional planter or businessman who bought headrights for resale or redemption. An exceedingly small number of patents include additional information about their headrights, such as the June 24,1635 Adam Thorowgood patent, which lists the headrights by the year and ship on which he had paid for their transport toVirginia. Nugent I, 22-23.

13Obviously a headright entered Virginia prior to the date of the patent in which he/she is redeemed, but some were held for decades before redemption. Francis Mason arrived in 1613 (1624/5 Muster), but did not redeem the headrights he acquired for himself and his family and servants until August 31, 1642.Nugent I,134.

14 See three successive patents to Edward Tunstall, Nugent I,111 134 144.

15 Nugent II, 37.

16 Jennings Cropper Wise, Ye Kingdome of Accamacke. (Richmond: Bell Book and Stationery Co., 1911) 107; The 1691 will of Richard Chandler, citizen and haberdasher of London, Canterbury Wills 1691, Public Record Office, London left a substantial bequest to Edward, son of my late brother Samuel of London.

17 Alexander Brown, The First Republic in America. (Boston and New York: Houghton, Mifflin and Company, 1898) 466 et seq.; I.G.I., British Isles, christened May 3, 1603 at Holy Trinity the Less, London; Chandler, Part I, 75 and n. 9, 86-93. The unsupported claim, first advanced in what is known as the "1931 Typescript Genealogy," stated that Richard was the father of four sons (John, Thomas, Arthur and George) who came to Virginia to claim their father's estate. This claim is still circulating among some Chandler families and is indiscriminately posted on the Internet.

18 Percival Boyd, Register of Apprentices and Freemen of the Drapers Company, (manuscript held bv the Drapers Company, London); Original Hampshire Wills 1633. Of George's four sons, only Richard was missing from his father's 1633 will, which also did not mention a widow or children of Richard. As the second of five sons, Richard was the logical choice to succeed to George's mercantile enterprise in London (Thomas, oldest son, was already managing the family farms in Hampshire). Third son, William was at Oxford preparing for the clergy, while George the younger was only 15 in March 1621/2.

19 John Camden Hotten, The Original Lists of Persons of Quality Who Went from England to the American Plantations 1600-1700. (1874) (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., reprint, 1974). 177, 219; Virginia M. Meyer and John Frederick Dorman, Editors, Adventurers of Purse and Person 1607-1624/5, Third Edition. (1956) (Richmond: Order of First Families of Virginia 1607-1624/5, The Dietz Press, 1987) 26.

20 I.G.I., British Isles; Robert Hume, Early Child Immigrants to Virginia 1618-/642. (Baltimore: Magna Carta Book Company, 1986) 27; Coldham, The Complete Book of Emigrants 1607-1660. (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 1987) viii, 10,18, 39, 57.

21 Nugent I, 203, 334.

22 Nugent I, 22, 264.

23 Beverley Fleet, Colonial Virginia Abstracts, Volume III. (c.1949) (Baltimore: Genealogies Publishing Co., Inc., reprint 1988). 28, 36.

24 Hotten 95.

25 Boyd, supra. George the younger had succeeded to his father's seat in the Drapers "by patrimony" in 1631 and was no doubt visiting/investigating his interests in Virginia in 1635.

26 Nugent I, 97, 128, 159.

27 Susie M. Ames, Ed., County Court Records of Accomack-Northampton, Virginia, 1632-1690 (Washington, DC: American Historical Association 1954), 87, William Stone as power-of-attorney collected a debt due Samuel; Ralph T. Whitelaw, Virginia's Eastern Shore (Gloucester, MA: Peter Smith 1968) 14, 16 n. 5. Jennings Cropper Wise wrote that Job was "brother of a London merchant who had lived in Northampton County." Ye Kingdome of Accamacke (Richmond: The Bell Book and Stationery Co.) 107.

28 In Virginia 1637 (n. 2), in London 1639-1641 (n. 5 and numerous London tobacco importation records found in the Colonial Records Project in the Virginia Archives), in Virginia 1641 (n. 5), in London 1643 (n. 9), in Virginia 1646 (n. 7). No record of his death, land ownership or of any estate has yet been found in Virginia, Maryland or England.

29 Harry Wright Newman, Seigniory in Early Maryland (Baltimore: Descendants of Lords of the Maryland Manors 1949) 64; Maryland Patents Liber 6, Folio 475. Richard undoubtedly named the property "Stratford Manor" for his hometown.

30 H. R. Mellwaine, Minutes of the Council and General Court of Colonial Virginia (Richmond, VA: Virginia State Library 1979) 499; Lyon G. Tyler, Ed., William and Mary Quarterly, 1st Series (Millwood, NY: Kraus Reprint Co. 1977), 156; Nugent I, 163. It was also in Accomack County that Samuel and 1610 John recorded a bond on February 17, 1639/40 for settlement of a business transaction to be concluded at the office of Thomas Stone in London. Ames I, 163.

31 Ames II, 237.

32 Howard Mackey and Marlene Alma Hinkley Groves, Northampton County, Virginia Record Book 1645-1651 (Rockport, ME: Picton Press 2000) 198.

33 Prerogative Court of Canterbury (PCC) Wills 1691, Folio 186 (Richard); Ibid. 1693, Folio 5 (Winnifred). Richard and John were buried in St. Mary the Virgin, Aldermanbury, London, where monumental busts were erected to their memories. The family had business interests in Barbados, the Summer Isles [properly, Somers Isles] (Bermudas) and elsewhere in the Caribbean as well as Virginia and Maryland.

34 Index of Freemen of the Grocers Company 1345-1645 (London: John R. Freeman and Co., microfilm, n.d., n.p., 1643 section). Daniel James was Samuel's sponsor. The same year, Thomas Colclough, whose brother George resided in Accomack, became a Grocer's apprentice. W.G. Stanard, Some Emigrants to Virginia (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc. rep 1979). 24.

35 Ames I, 138; I.G.I., British Isles.

36 Nugent I, 128.

37 Alice Granberry Walter, Lower Norfolk County, Virginia Court Records (Baltimore: Clearfield Co. ca. 1994), Book B, 40, 52.

38 Beverly Fleet, Virginia Colonial Abstract, Volume III (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc. 1988 reprint) 434; Nugent I, 273.

39 Lower Norfolk County Record Book C, 155. Such gifts were common as in William Davis' bequest to godson William Chandler. Chandler, Part II, TVF May/June 2001.

40 John Frederick Dorman, "Inquisitions on Escheated Land 1665-1676" in The Virginia Genealogist, Volume 20, No. 2 (Washington, DC: J. F. Dorman 1976) 115-116; Nugent 1, 28, 156; Nugent II. 110, 202. Worster's patent dated May 22, 1637, is missing. See also Chandler, Part I, TVF August/September 2000.

41 Chandler, Part IV, TVF August/September 2002, 79-81. This John died less than two months later.

42 Lydia Sparacio Bontempo and Alex Sparacio Dickman, Virginia County Court Records, Deed and Will Abstracts of Northumberland County 1711-1712 (Springfield, VA: Antient Press 2002) 30-32; Charles and Virginia Hamrick, Northumberland County, Virginia Court Order Book Part Two 1706-1713 (Athens, GA: Iberian Publishing Company c. 2002) 84-85. Daniel "of Elizabeth City" sold 400- and 700-acre parts of the 1500-acre tract to Richard Smith January 22, 1673/4. Smith sold the 700 acres to James Nipper/Nepper June 20, 1677. He sold the 350-acre tract to Peter Cantanceau (a/k/a Coutanceau), the subject of litigation in 1707.

43 Lower Norfolk County Record Book A, 90; Nugent 1, 179.

44 Ames II, 339, Job witnessed a contract among his brother Samuel, William Shrimpton, Richard Stone, John Holloway and Richard Hawley. Shrimpton was co-executor and beneficiary in the will of Lady Elizabeth Dale, widow of Sir Thomas Dale, Virginia Governor 1611-1616). Richard Stone was a nephew of Thomas Stone, London associate of Job's brothers Richard and Samuel.

45 Howard Mackey and Marlene Alma Hinkley Groves, Northampton County, Virginia Record Book (1645-1651) (Rockport, ME: Picton Press 2000) 181-2.

46 Edgar I. Fripp, Shakespeare: Man and Artist, Volume II (London: Oxford University Press 1938), 785, 811, 871 et seq. (contained some about William's origin, the identification of first son William and other details, about which see Chandler, TVF August/September 2000, 86-7, n. 123 and the Holy Trinity Registers; Registers of Holy Trinity Church, Stratford. Richard's mother was Elizabeth Quiney, a cousin of Shakespeare, but the mother of Job and his other full siblings is unknown.

47 Registers of the Haberdashers at Haberdashers' Hall and the Guild Hall, London. Perhaps his stepfather Thomas Greene (a London attorney among whose clients were the City of Stratford and his cousin William Shakespeare) facilitated the sponsorship and otherwise promoted his stepsons as London merchants. Richard established himself "at the sign of the Pelican in Ladd Lane and Aldermanbury Street" near the Guild Hall, where he and brother John resided and maintained their office until John's death in 1686. Richard died in 1691. A Collection of the Names of the Merchants Living in and about the City of London (London: Samuel Lee 1677) "C" list; Christian E. Hauer and William Q. Young, A Comprehensive History of the London Church and Parish of St. Mary the Virgin, Aldermanbury: the Phoenix of Aldermanbury (Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press 1994) 395-6; Thomas Wright, Esq. A New History of London and Westminster (London: George White 1831) 475; Pierson Cathrick, The History of the Church and Parish of St. Mary the Virgin, Aldermanbury (London: W. H. & L. Collingridge 1913).

48 William Hand Browne, Proceedings of the Council of Maryland 1648-1655 (Baltimore: Maryland Historical Society 1885) 263-4. Ca. 1648-51, many religious Dissenters moved from Virginia to Maryland where Baltimore's religious liberty policies gave relief from the heavy-handed Established Church in Virginia. A new house and Job's life were remembered in a ceremony at Chandler's Hope on October 9, 2001 in which the present author participated. Anne married Maryland Attorney General Thomas Burford. Their descendants will be revealed in a future article.

49 Nugent I. 182; Fleet III. 94, three of the six headrights in a May 25, 1648 York County certificate.

50 Nugent I, 190.

51 Nugent I, 275.

52 Nugent I, 257.

53 I.G.I., British Isles.

54 Joanne McRee Sanders, Barbados Records: Marriages 1643-1800. (Houston: Sanders Historical Publications 1982).20; Sanders, Barbados Records: Baptisms 1637-1800. (Baltimore Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc. 1984). 4, 9, 11. Barbados was an early Caribbean outpost with extensive commercial and family ties with Virginia families.

55 Library of Virginia, Survey Report No. 04199 (Richmond: Library of Virginia 1960).

56 Nugent I, 257.

57 Nelson cites "Record of First Settlers 1654-1663, published (in) Baltimore 1998, p. 59," but the present author has not been able to identify this source.

58 Peter Wilson Coldham reports four more Chandlers traveling to Virginia - George 1635 (p. 152) in The Complete Book of Emigrants 1607-1660 (Baltimore 1987: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc.) and Thomas 1660 (p. 131), Timothy 1670 (p. 266) and Mary 1684 (p. 364) in The Bristol Registers of Servants Sent to Foreign Plantations 1654-1686 (Baltimore 1988: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc.) - not reported by Nelson and of whom there is no evidence of arrival in Virginia. The present author elects not to include those persons among possible Virginia immigrants. George's return to London was revealed in the present author's article in TVF, November/December 2000, 141.

59 JoAnn Riley McKey, Accomack County, Virginia Court Order Abstracts, Volume 3: 1671-1673 (Bowie. MD: Heritage Books, Inc. 1996) 48.

60 Original will, PCC Wills 1655, folio 326.

61 Nugent II, 348. Samuel Matthews, Virginia Governor 1677-8 acquired thousands of acres in several counties. Many of his headrights were probably for persons coming to Virginia for curiosity, vacation, family visits, research or on business and did not remain in the colony. Northumberland records do not show a resident Chandler there in the remainder of the seventeenth century.

62 Chandler. Part IV.

63 Nugent II, 102.

64 Nugent II, 136. Bartholomew's headright was redeemed more than a decade after it was earned. Many land patents, especially ones of 1000+ acres, included headrights accumulated over many years. A John Chandler was among the headrights for 2665 acres he acquired. Headrights were acquired in many ways, thus it is erroneous to assume that most headrights became indentured servants, that they were imported by the persons in whose patents they appear or that they settled in the county of any particular patent.

65 He witnessed a power-of-attorney on September 6, 1661 (Fleet III, 252-3), a bond on August 31. 1663 (Benjamin B. Weisiger Henrico County, Virginia Deeds 1677-1705 [Richmond, VA: Rocky Ridge Press 1986] 145) and appeared as a headright a second time November 29, 1674 (Nugent II, 159), perhaps returning from a trip abroad. He is also referenced post-mortem in transactions in 1709, 1718 and 1731. Weisiger, Henrico County. Virginia Deeds 1706-1737 (Richmond, VA: Rocky Ridge Press 1985) 20, 70, 115.

66 Nugent II, 374.

67 Weisiger 1677-1705, 44, 49.

68 Weisiger 1677-1705, 28.

69 Bartholomew undoubtedly did business with Randolph, Byrd and Robert Mumford, who operated a trading empire ranging from the Blue Ridge to Spanish Florida near St. Augustine.

70 Maryland Archives xlix, 12; Henry C. Peden, Jr., Maryland Deponents 1634-1799 (Westminster, MD: Family Line Publications 1991), 31.

71 I.G.I. British Isles, father Elias Chandler m. (1) Katherine Coventry on November 9, 1625 and (2) Rebecca Field, July 20, 1629, both at St. Dunstan, Stepney, London. His siblings were Mary (1626), Mary (1629), Amy (1632), Anne (1635), Charity (1637) and Anne (1643).

72 JoAnn Riley McKey, Accomack County, Virginia Court Order Abstracts 1663-1666 (Bowie, MD: Heritage Books, Inc. 1996) 2.

73 Coldham 1607-1660, 428. One suspects Francis 1654 was delayed and finally sent in 1659.

74 G. Andrews Moriarty "Ancestry of William Chandler of Roxbury, Massachusetts" in New England Historical and Genealogical Register (Boston: NEHGR 1931) 140-I.

75 Nugent II, 24, 44.

76 Coldham 1607-1660, 434.

77 Nugent II, 22.

78 Nugent II, 20.

79 Chandler, Part II.

80 Since Bartholomew died without heirs making a claim to his very valuable 1238 acres, it seems likely William predeceased him, or returned to England and failed to claim Bartholomew's land.

81 Halbert's Book of Chandlers. 'Chandler Immigrants and Worldwide Descendants'. Halbert's Family Heritage. 1989. Appendix A, Early Chandler Immigrants. Parent company NUMA. Halberts, Inc., now defunct for misrepresentation of publication.

82 Nell Marion Nugent, Cavaliers and Pioneers, Volume II. (Richmond: Virginia State Library, 1977). 165; Joseph Chandler, Tidewater Virginia Families, Vol. II, No 2 Pt IV (2002) 82.

83 Nugent II, 171.

84 Nugent II, 186.

85 Nugent II, 199.

86 W. Preston Haynie, Records of Indentured Servants and Certificates for Land, Northumberland County, Virginia 1650-1795. (Bowie, MD: Heritage Books, Inc., 1996) 139; Augusta B. Fothergill, Wills of Westmoreland County, Virginia 1654-1800. (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co Inc., 1973) 84.

87 Ellen Goode Winslow, History of Perquimans County. (Raleigh: Edwards & Broughton Co., 1931), 1-3; Wynette Parks Haun, Perquimans County, North Carolina Court Minutes 1738-1754 (Durham, NC: W. P. Haun, c. 1987) 31-34, items 67-71; North Carolina State Archives. Raleigh, Loose Estate Files: Benjamin Chandler 1733; Nugent I, 501; Land Patent Book (PB) 5.330; William Walter Hening, The Statutes at Large, Volume I. (Richmond, VA: Whittet & Shepperson, 1969 reprint) 528; William L. Saunders, Colonial Records of North Carolina. (Wilmington, NC: Broadfoot Publishing Company, 1993) xxxii, 20, 66-67, 152, 355-356; Mrs. Watson (Ellen Goode) Winslow, History of Perquimans County. (Baltimore: Regional Publishing Company, 1974) 113-114, 128, 130, 167, 199, 223; Margaret M. Hofmann, Province of North Carolina 1663-1729, Abstracts of Land Patents. (Weldon, NC: The Roanoke News Company, 1979) 37, (#392).

88 JoAnn Riley McKey, Accomack County, Virginia Court Order Abstracts (Bowie, MD: Heritage Books, Inc., 1996), Volumes 7, 8,9, 10, 13, 14; Stratton Nottingham, Abstracts of Wills and Administrations of Accomack County, Virginia 1663-1800 (Bowie, MD: Heritage Books, Inc., 231 1990) 87 (WB 1,296).

89 Nugent II, 279, 365.

90 Haynie, 139; Fothergill, 90; John Frederick Dorman, Westmoreland County, Virginia Order Book 1690-1698. (Washington, DC: J. F. Dorman, 1964), 63; Ruth and Sam Sparacio, Deed and Will Abstracts of Westmoreland County, Virginia 1734-1736. (McLean VA- The Antient Press 1995), 97.

91 Nugent II, 325.

92 Joseph B. Chandler, "John Chandler, 1610 Immigrant and Some of His Descendants: Part IV." Tidewater Virginia Families: A Magazine of History and Genealogy. Vol.11 No.2 (2002) 79-88

93 Nugent II, 332; Chandler, Part IV, 79.14.

94 Chandler, Part IV, 84.

95 Nugent II, 362.

96 Nugent II, 397; Chandler, Part II, 83-84.

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